List of the Amphibians of Paraguay
The following is a list of the 88 amphibian species documented for Paraguay based on Brusquetti & Lavilla (2006). The scientific and English names are given (where they exist). Numbers in brackets after the order and family names refer to the number of species recorded in Paraguay. A further 18 species cited for Paraguay were removed from the list by the same authors based on insufficient evidence and additional species not yet recorded were predicted to occur (see bottom of page). Global conservation status is given in red after the species name and follows the 2007 IUCN red list categories.
Eco-region endemism is indicated by the following codes: CH Chaco; AF Atlantic Forest; CE Cerrado; MG Mesopotamian Grasslands.
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Each photo in the FAUNA Paraguay database is coded for citation purposes. Complete database available on request.
Order Gymnophiona (3) Caecilians (Rafinesque 1814)
Siphonopidae (2) Burrowing Caecilians Bonaparte, 1850
LAVENDER BURROWING CAECILIAN Lutkenotyphlus brasiliensis (Luetken 1852 "1851") DD
SAO PAULO BURROWING CAECILIAN Siphonops paulensis (Boettger 1892) LR/lc
Typhlonectidae (1) Aquatic Caecilians (Taylor 1968)
ARGENTINE BLACK CAECILIAN Chthonerepton indistinctum (Reinhardt & Lutken 1862) LR/lc
Order Anura (83) Frogs and Toads (Dumeríl 1804)
Hylidae (28) Tree-frogs (Rafinesque 1815)
Subfamily Hylinae (Rafinesque 1815)
RED-SPOTTED TRACTOR FROG Argenteohyla simiersi pederseni Williams & Bosso, 1994 EN/B2ab(iii)
CE ELIANEA´S TREE-FROG Dendropsophus elianeae (Napoli & Carramaschi, 2000) LR/lc
CE JIMI TREE-FROG Dendropsophus jimi (Napoli & Carramaschi, 1999) LR/lc
INTERIOR TREE-FROG Dendropsophus melanargyreus (Cope, 1887) LR/lc
LESSER TREE-FROG Dendropsophus minutus (Peters, 1872) LR/lc
DWARF TREE-FROG Dendropsophus nanus (Boulenger, 1889) LR/lc
SANBORN´S TREE-FROG Dendropsophus sanborni (Schmidt, LR/lc
SPOTTED TREE-FROG Hypsiboas albopunctatus (Spix, 1824) LR/lc
AF LINED RINKY-DINK TREE-FROG Hypsiboas caingua (Carrizo, 1991 "1990") LR/lc
AF KURUPI TREE-FROG Hypsiboas curupi García, Faivovich & Haddad, 2007 DD
BLACKSMITH TREE-FROG Hypsiboas faber (Wied-Neuwied, 1821) LR/lc
UNIFORM RINKY-DINK TREE-FROG Hypsiboas pulchellus (Duméril & Bibron, 1841) LR/lc
RED AND GREEN TREE-FROG Hypsiboas punctatus rubrolineatus (Lutz, 1951) LR/lc
PURPLE-BARRED TREE-FROG Hypsiboas raniceps (Cope, 1862 LR/lc
AF OCELLATED TREE-FROG Itapotihyla langsdorffii (Duméril & Bibron, 1841) LR/lc
CH WARTY SNOUTED TREE-FROG Scinax acuminatus (Cope, 1862) LR/lc
DWARF SNOUTED TREE-FROG Scinax berthae (Barrio, 1962) LR/lc
TRANSLUCENT SNOUTED TREE-FROG Scinax fuscomarginatus (A. Lutz, 1925) LR/lc
YELLOW-LEGGED SNOUTED TREE-FROG Scinax fuscovarius (A. Lutz, 1925) LR/lc
LESSER SNOUTED TREE-FROG Scinax nasicus (Cope, 1862) LR/lc
COCHRAN´S SNOUTED TREE-FROG Scinax similis (Cochran, 1952) LR/lc
STRIPED SNOUTED TREE-FROG Scinax squalirostris (A. Lutz, 1925) LR/lc
MILKY TREE-FROG Trachycephalus typhonius (Linnaeus, 1758) LR/lc
Subfamily Phyllomedusinae Gunther 1858
EARLESS LEAF FROG Phyllomedusa azurea Cope, 1862 LR/lc
CH SAUVAGE´S LEAF FROG Phyllomedusa sauvagii Boulenger, 1882 LR/lc
AF RETICULATED LEAF FROG Phyllomedusa tetraploidea Pombal & Haddad, 1992 LR/lc
Subfamily Pseudinae (Fitzinger 1843)
CLICKING FROG Lysapsus limellum Cope, 1862 LR/lc
LA PLATA PARADOX FROG Pseudis platensis Gallardo, 1961 LR/lc
Leptodactylidae (14) Thin-toed Frogs (Werner 1896)
PARAGUAY BASIN ADENOMERA Adenomera diptyx Boettger, 1885 LR/lc
CH OVEN FROG Leptodactylus bufonius Boulenger, 1894 LR/lc
CHACO FROG Leptodactylus chaquensis Cei, 1950 LR/lc
ELENA´S THIN-TOED FROG Leptodactylus elenae Heyer, 1978 LR/lc
CERRADO OVEN FROG Leptodactylus furnarius Sazima & Bokermann, 1978 LR/lc
WHISTLING FROG Leptodactylus fuscus (Schneider, 1799) LR/lc
WHISTLING STRIPED THIN-TOED FROG Leptodactylus gracilis (Duméril & Bibron, 1841) LR/lc
PEPPER FROG Leptodactylus labyrinthicus (Spix, 1824) LR/lc
CH CORALLINE FROG Leptodactylus laticeps Boulenger, 1918 LR/nt
SMALL OVEN FROG Leptodactylus latinasus Jiménez de la Espada, 1875 LR/lc
MOUSTACHED FROG Leptodactylus mystacinus (Burmeister, 1861) LR/lc
OCELLATED FROG Leptodactylus latrans (Linnaeus, 1758) LR/lc
SPECKLED-BELLIED FROG Leptodactylus podicipinus (Cope, 1862) LR/lc
BURGUNDY THIN-TOED FROG Leptodactylus syphax Bokermann, 1969 LR/lc
Ceratophryidae (5) Horned Toads (Tschudi 1838)
CH CRANWELL´S HORNED FROG Ceratophrys cranwelli Barrio, 1980 LR/lc
CH LESSER CHINI FROG Chacophrys pierottii (Vellard 1948) LR/lc
RIDGELESS BUDGETT´S FROG Lepidobatrachus asper Budgett, 1899 LR/nt
CH ROUND-EYED BUDGETT´S FROG Lepidobatrachus laevis Budgett, 1899 LR/lc
ORANGE-LEGGED BUDGETT´S FROG Lepidobatrachus llanensis Reig & Cei, 1963 LR/lc
Cycloramphidae (4) Escuerzos (Bonaparte 1850)
RAPIDS FROG Limnomedusa macroglossa (Duméril & Bibron, 1841) LR/lc
LESSER ESCUERZO Odontophrynus americanus (Duméril & Bibron, 1841) LR/lc
CH CHACO ESCUERZO Odontophrynus lavillai Cei, 1985 LR/lc
AF ORANGE-BELLIED ESCUERZO Proceratophrys avelinoi Mercadal de Barrio & Barrio, 1993 LR/lc
Leiuperidae (14) Dwarf Frogs (Bonaparte 1850)
NATTERER´S EYED FROG Eupemphix nattereri Steindachner, 1863 LR/lc
PALE-LEGGED WEEPING FROG Physalaemus albonotatus (Steindachner, 1864) LR/lc
FOUR-EYED WEEPING FROG Physalaemus biligonigerus (Cope, 1861) LR/lc
CE CENTRAL WEEPING FROG Physalaemus centralis Bokermann, 1862 LR/lc
CUVIER´S WEEPING FROG Physalaemus cuvieri Fitzinger, 1826 LR/lc
PAINTED-LEGGED WEEPING FROG Physalaemus aff. gracilis Boulenger 1883 LR/lc
MARBLED WEEPING FROG Physalaemus marmoratus Reinhardt & Lutken, 1862 LR/lc
RIO GRANDE WEEPING FROG Physalaemus riograndensis Milstead, 1960 LR/lc
SANTA FE WEEPING FROG Physalaemus santafecinus Barrio, 1965 LR/lc
FOUR-EYED FROG Pleuroderma bibroni Tschudi, 1838 LR/lc
PARKER´S SWAMP FROG Pseudopaludicola boliviana Parker, 1927 LR/lc
HENSEL´S SWAMP FROG Pseudopaludicola falcipes (Hensel, 1867) LR/lc
COPE´S SWAMP FROG Pseudopaludicola mystacalis (Cope, 1887) LR/lc
TERNETZ´S SWAMP FROG Pseudopaludicola ternetzi Miranda-Ribeiro, 1937 LR/lc
Bufonidae (15) Toads (Gray 1825)
BLACK RED-BELLY TOAD Melanophryniscus atroluteus (Mirando-Ribeiro, 1920) LR/lc
DEVINCENZII´S CRESTED RED-BELLY TOAD Melanophryniscus devincenzii Klappenbach, 1968 EN
SPOTTED RED-BELLY TOAD Melanophryniscus fulvoguttatus (Mertens, 1937) LR/lc
CH KLAPPENBACH´S RED-BELLY TOAD Melanophryniscus klappenbachi Prigioni & Langone, 2000 LR/lc
MG KRAUCZUK´S RED-BELLY TOAD Melanophryniscus krauczuki Baldo & Basso, 2004 DD
MG COPPER-SHOULDERED RED-BELLY TOAD Melanophryniscus cupreuscapularis Cespedez & Álvarez, 1999 LR/nt
PARAGUAYAN RED-BELLY TOAD Melanophryniscus paraguayensis Cespedez & Motte, 2007 DD
LESSER GRANULATED TOAD Rhinella bergi (Céspedez, 2000) LR/lc
BELLA VISTA GRANULATED TOAD Rhinella fernandezae (Gallardo, 1957) LR/lc
AZARA´S GRANULATED TOAD Rhinella azarai (Gallardo, 1965) LR/lc
CH CHACO GRANULATED TOAD Rhinella major (Muller & Hellmich, 1936) LR/lc
CURURU TOAD Rhinella icterica (Spix, 1824) LR/lc
AF ORNATE FOREST TOAD Rhinella ornata (Spix, 1824) LR/lc
ROCOCO TOAD Rhinella schneideri (Werner, 1894) LR/lc
CE COPE´S TOAD Rhinella scitula (Caramaschi & Niemeyer, 2003) DD
Hylodidae (1) Crossodactylid Frogs (Gunther 1858)
SCHMIDT´S STREAM FROG Crossodactylus schmidti Gallardo, 1961a LR/nt
Microhylidae (6) Microhylid Frogs (Gunther 1858)
SPOTTED HUMMING FROG Chiasmocleis albopunctata (Boettger 1885) LR/lc
MEHELY´S HUMMING FROG Chiasmocleis mehelyi Caramaschi & Cruz 1997 DD
MUELLER´S NARROW-MOUTHED FROG Dermatonotus muelleri (Boettger 1885) LR/lc
BICOLOURED OVAL FROG Elachistocleis bicolor (Guérin-Méneville 1838) LR/lc
CE MATO GROSSO OVAL FROG Elachistocleis matogrosso Caramaschi, 2010 LR/lc
CH CHACO OVAL FROG Elachistocleis haroi Pereyra et al, 2013 LR/lc
The following 27 taxa are considered of possible or probable occurrence in Paraguay by Brusquetti & Lavilla (2006):
Aplastodiscus perviridis (Lutz 1950) - Records from the Atlantic Forest of Misiones, Argentina are close to the Paraguayan border. Its presence in Paraguay is considered probable.
Dendropsophus tritaeniatus (Bokermann 1965) - Known from the cerrado of Bolivia and Brazil and likely also present in Paraguay.
Eleutherodactylus henselii (Peters 1870) - Possible in the relict Araucaria forests of eastern Paraguay though deforestation in this area has been extensive. Its presence in Paraguay is considered possible.
Epipedobates braccatus (Steindachner 1864) - A Pantanal species that may be present in the Mato Grosso region of Paraguay. It occurs in neighbouring Brazil.
Epipedobates pictus (Tschudi 1838) - A Pantanal species that may be present in the Mato Grosso region of Paraguay. It occurs in neighbouring Brazil.
Hyalinobatrachium uranoscopum (Muller 1924) - Possible in the relict Araucaria forests of eastern Paraguay though deforestation in this area has been extensive. Its presence in Paraguay is considered possible.
Hypsiboas varilae (Carrizo 1992) - Known only from its type locality in Argentina, it is however close to Paraguay and its occurrence here is considered possible.
Leptodactylus plaumanni (Ahl 1936) - Possible in the relict Araucaria forests of eastern Paraguay though deforestation in this area has been extensive. Its presence in Paraguay is considered possible.
Odontophrynus cordobae (Martino & Sinsch 2002) - A cryptic species extremely similar to O.americanus. Though currently known only from the Cordoba area of Argentina, Frost (2006) tentatively suggested that its distribution may reach Paraguay. Its presence in Paraguay is considered possible.
Phyllomedusa boliviana (Boulenger 1902) - Recorded in the Bolivian Chaco close to the Paraguayan border. Its presence in Paraguay is considered probable.
Physalaemus henselii (Peters 1872a) - A Paraguayan specimen MN486 in the Museum of Natural History in Rio de Janeiro has been referred to this species but its poor condition renders it unidentifiable. Its occurrence in Paraguay is considered probable.
Pleuroderma guayapae (Barrio 1964b) - A population exists near to the Paraguayan border in Tarija, Bolivia. Its occurrence in Paraguay is considered probable.
Proceratophrys bigibbosa (Peters 1872a) - Records from the Atlantic Forest of Misiones, Argentina are close to the Paraguayan border. Its presence in Paraguay is considered probable.
Pseudis minutus (Gunther 1858) - cited by Méheli (1904) for the Asunción and Concepción area, but currently no specimen or documented evidence exists. Its presence in Paraguay is considered probable as it has been found on islands in the Rio Paraná.
Rhinella arenaria (Hensel 1867) - Recorded close to the Paraguayan border in the Chaco of Argentina and Bolivia. Often cited for Paraguay (Bertoni 1939, Gallardo 1987) but currently no specimen or documented evidence exists. Its presence in Paraguay is considered probable.
Rhinella mirandoribeiroi (Gallardo 1965) - Currently considered a subspecies but likely worthy of specific recognition, this species is of probable occurrence in the cerrado belt.
Scinax aromothyella (Faivovich 2005) - Records from the Atlantic Forest of Misiones, Argentina are close to the Paraguayan border. Its presence in Paraguay is considered probable.
Scinax granulatus (Peters 1871) - Cited by Aquino et al (1996) as S.eringiophila but lacking documentation or a specimen. The occurrence of this species in Paraguay is considered possible in the relict Araucaria forest of eastern Paraguay.
Scinax parkeri (Gaige 1929) - Known from the cerrado of Bolivia and possible in Paraguay.
Scinax perereca (Pombal, Haddad & Kasahara 1995) - Supposed Paraguayan specimens of this species are referable to S.fuscovarius, though its occurrence in Paraguay is considered probable as they occur in northern Argentina.
Scinax uruguayus (Schmidt 1944) - Records from the Atlantic Forest of Misiones, Argentina are close to the Paraguayan border. Its presence in Paraguay is considered probable.
Siphonops annulatus (Mikan 1820) - Cited as probable by Dunn (1942), Taylor (1968), Frost (2006), IUCN (2006). Wide-ranging distribution in South America and it is considered probable in Paraguay.
Trachycephalus imitratrix (Miranda-Ribeiro 1926) - Possible in the relict Araucaria forests of eastern Paraguay though deforestation in this area has been extensive. Its presence in Paraguay is considered possible.
The following 19 taxa were removed from the Paraguayan list by Brusquetti & Lavilla (2006) on the basis of lack of documented evidence, changes in taxonomy or misidentification:
Caecilia sp. - Reported from Bahìa Negra by (Padial et al 2003) but lacks proper documentation.
Ceratophrys ornata (Bell 1843) - Old records of this species in Paraguay (eg Budgett 1899) are referable to C.cranwelli which was split by Barrio (1980).
Dendropsophus rubicundulus (Reinhardt & Lutken 1862) - Cited for Paraguay by Aquino et al (1996) based on misidentified specimens of D.jimi and D.eleaneae.
Elachistocelis ovalis (Schneider 1799) - Distributed north of the River Amazon. The numerous citations of this species for Paraguay refer to E.bicolor.
Eleutherodactylus discoidalis (Peracca 1895) - Bertoni (1914) cites Hylodes discoidalis for Paraguay but this is an Andean species unlikely to ever occur in Paraguay.
Hyla palliata (Cope 1863) - Cited for Paraguay based on a lost specimen from the Page expedition. The written description does not facilitate identification beyond generic level to Hypsiboas.
Hypsiboas boans (Linneaus 1758) - Cited by Bertoni (1939) as Hyla boans but this species is distributed well to the north of Paraguay and its occurrence here is unlikely.
Hypsiboas cinerascens (Spix 1824) - Cited by Boulenger (1894) as Hyla granosa but this species is distributed well to the north of Paraguay and its occurrence here is unlikely.
Hypsiboas crepitans (Wied-Neuwied 1824) - Cited by Boettger (1885) and Bertoni (1914 & 1939) as Hyla crepitans but this species is distributed in dry areas well to the north of Paraguay and its occurrence here is unlikely.
Hypsiboas polytaenius (Cope 1870) - Cited from diverse localities in Paraguay by Aquino (1986) and Aquino et al (1996) but no evidence exists and it may be a result of an erroneus identification of H.caingua.
Lithobates palmipes (Spix 1824) - Registered as Rana palmipes by Bertoni (1939) no corroborative evidence exists to support its presence in Paraguay.
Melanophryniscus stelzneri (Weyenbergh 1875-1876) - Cited for Paraguay by Aquino et al (1996) based on a composite sample of M.atroluteus, M.fulvoguttatus, M.klappenbachi and a new species of Melanophryniscus.
Odontophrynus cultripes (Reinhardt & Lutken 1862) - Cited for Paraguay by Cope (1863) and Frost (2006), but no documentation or evidence exists. Its known range is confined to eastern Brazil.
Pleuroderma bibronii (Tschudi 1838) - Cited by Cope (1862) and later questioned by Gallardo (1968). There is no supporting evidence and the species is considered unlikely in Paraguay.
Proceratophrys appendiculata (Gunther 1873) - Izecksohn et al (1999) mention specimens supposedly from the Asunción area in the Museu de Zoologia da USP but the locality information may be suspect as there is no other evidence that the species occurs in Paraguay and the known range of the species is well-removed.
Proceratophrys boiei (Wied-Nueiwed 1824) - Mentioned by Bertoni (1939) as Odontophrynus boiei, but this likely refers to P.avelinoi which was described later. P.boiei is confined to eastern Brazil.
Rhinella dorbigyni (Duméril & Bibron 1841) - Published Paraguayan records (Boettger 1885a; Bertoni 1914 & 1939) likely refer to misidentified Chaunus granulosus major.
Scinax catharinae (Boulenger 1888) - Cited by Bertoni (1939) as Hyla catharinae but this species is confined to extreme southeast Brazil and its occurrence here is unlikely.
Scinax ruber (Laurenti 1768) - Cited by Bertoni (1939) as Hyla ruber but this species is distributed well to the north of Paraguay and its occurrence here is unlikely.
For references cited here see Brusquetti & Lavilla (2006) Lista Comentada de los Anfibios del Paraguay - Cuad. Herpetol 20(2): p3-79.
We highly recommend this paper to interested readers and it is available for reference in the FAUNA Paraguay library.
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