FAUNA PARAGUAY HETEROPTERAN IMAGE GALLERY
FAUNA Paraguay Gallery of Bug (Hemiptera) Images
Designed by Paul Smith 2006. This website is copyrighted by law. Material contained herewith may not be used without the prior written permission of FAUNA Paraguay. Photographs on this web-site were taken by Paul Smith, Hemme Batjes, Regis Nossent,
Alberto Esquivel, Arne Lesterhuis, Rebbeca Zarza, Josť Luis Cartes and Hugo del Castillo and are used with their permission.
Hemipterans are bugs, representing almost 10% of all described insects and occurring in a wide variety of habitats, both terrestrial and aquatic. They range in size from small to very large and include such well known groups as cicadas, planthoppers, aphids and true bugs. All Hemipterans possess piercing mouthparts (the stylet or rostrum) which enable them to feed on plant sap or animal juices, and many species are considered commercial pests. Some species have reduced wings and others lack them entirely. Immature stages (nymphs) generally resemble miniature adults. The Hemiptera are split into several suborders which are summarised below.
The figure in brackets after the family names refer to the number of identified species in the gallery.
Click on the taxonomic links below to access the images.
Click on the images to enlarge them.
Click on the species links to access the FAUNA Paraguay Handbook of Paraguayan fauna species accounts.
The Heteropterans were formerly split into three broad groups, the Geocorisae (terrestrial hemipterans), Amphibicorisae (water surface hemipterans) and Hydrocorisae (aquatic hemipterans). Today this classification is no longer used and is replaced by seven infraorders that better reflect inter-familial relationships.
Family Belostomatidae - Giant Water Bugs
Family Corixidae - Lesser Waterboatmen
Family Reduviidae - Assassin Bugs (15)
Family Miridae - Plant Bugs
Family Nabidae - Damsel Bugs
Family Pyrrhocoridae - Cotton Stainers
Family Alydidae - Broad-headed Bugs (1)
Family Coreidae - Leaf-footed Bugs (14)
Family Berytidae - Stilt Bugs
Family Pentatomidae - Shield Bugs (11)
Family Scutellaridae - Tortoise Bugs
The following suborders - Auchenorrhynchans and the Stenorrhynchans - were formerly placed in a single suborder "Homoptera" an old taxonomic grouping that has been demonstrated to be multi-phyletic and hence is no longer accepted in modern classifications.
This suborder contains the leafhoppers, cicadas, planthoppers, lantern bugs and similar groups. The most reliable distinguishing feature of this suborder is the position of the rostrum - it originates from the underside of the rear part of the head. In fact the name Auchenorrhyncha is derived from the Greek meaning "neck snout". Members of this suborder possess short bristle-like antennae, three tarsal segments between the end of the tibia and the claw and the vast majority of species are winged and active. Hoppers are particularly noted for their jumping abilities whilst the cicadas are well-known for the loud sounds that they are capable of producing.
Family Aphrophoridae - Spittlebugs (1)
Family Cercopidae - Froghoppers
Superfamily Cicadoidea: Antennae located in front of or between the compound eyes. Middle coxae reduced and contiguous. Single anal veins.
Family Cicadellidae - Leafhoppers (3)
Family Cicadidae - Cicadas (4)
Family Membracidae - Treehoppers (7)
Superfamily Fulgaroidea: Antennae located on the side of the head beneath the compound eyes. Middle coxae elongated and separate. Pair of anal veins on the forewings often meet distally to form a Y-vein.
Family Delphacidae - Spurred Planthoppers
Family Dictyopharidae - Horned Planthoppers
Family Fulgoridae - Lantern Bugs (2)
This suborder contains the aphids, scale bugs and plant lice amongst other groups. Sternorrhynchans are characterised by the fact that the rostrum originates from the underside of the body between the front legs (Sternorrhyncha stems from the Greek "chest nose"). Sternorrhynchans have only one or two tarsal segments and the antennae vary - they may be long and thread-like or even completely absent! In some groups (especially the Coccidae) females and immature stages are completely immobile and may not even look like insects. Many members of this group are considered pests and have a considerable economic impact on agriculture.
Family Aphididae - Aphids
Family Coccidae - Scale Bugs