FORMICIDAE - ANTS
The Subfamily Ectatomminae was formerly included as a tribe Ectatommini in the Subfamily Ponerinae. That tribe also included the Heteroponerinae.
Habitat: Ectatomma are abundant and conspicuous ants found in both forested and open habitats be they humid or dry. The tribe Typhlomyrmecini and genus Gnamptogenys are found in humid forest habitats.
Distribution: The tribe Typhlomyrmecini is distributed from Veracruz in Mexico to northeast Argentina, but is absentfrom the Caribbean islands. Gnamptogenys is found from the southern USA to northern Argentina. Ectatomma occurs from southern Mexico to Argentina, though the majority of species are South American.
Characteristics: Members of this subfamily lack arolia between the tarsal claws. Those of the tribe Ectatommini share features such as the fusion of the pronotal suture (rendering it inflexible), the similar shape of the posteroventral process of the pronotum and the sheath that surrounds the prosternal foramen and through which the principal nerve passes.
Genera: Three genera occur in Paraguay Ectatomma, F.Smith, Gnamptogenys, Roger and Typhlomyrmex Mayr.
Ectatomma (6 species) - In lateral view the mesonotum and propodium form two distinct convex areas on the dorsal surface. The propodeal spiracle is elongated (not circular) and in most cases there are three pronotal tubercles. These are carnivorous ants, feeding largely on arthropods and annelids, but also taking honeydew from aphids and nectar from nectaries. Nests in the ground with a single entrance.
Gnamptogenys (8 species) - Typified by the ribbed cuticle, many species also possess a spine on the dorsal metacoxa. The propodeal spiracle is circular and the mesonotum is not convex. Nest in decaying wood, underground or in leaf litter. For the most part they are terrestrial predators, but the extent of specialisation varies with species.
Typhlomyrmex (3 species) - These species have the eyes completely atrophied and the pedunculate pedicel inserts into the median part of the anterior face of the post-pedicel. Lack denticles on the anterior border of the clypeus, which distinguishes the genus from the similar Amblyoponinae. Nest in decaying wood or in the ground in humid forest areas
Species: Seventeen species of this subfamily are documented as occurring in Paraguay classified into two tribes.
Lattke JE 2003 - Subfamilia Ponerinae in Introducción a las Hormigas de la Région Neotropical - Von Humboldt Institute, Bogota, Colombia.
The following is a list of the species so far documented as occurring in Paraguay taken from the online resource Ant Web.
Species for which we have live images taken in Paraguay are marked with a *.
CLICK HERE TO SEE THE LIVE ECTATOMMINAE IMAGES TAKEN IN PARAGUAY
Click the species link for access to Ant Web specimen images and FAUNA Paraguay species accounts.
Specimen images of 16 species (94.1% of subfamily total) are currently available.
Click the AntWebsp link for access to the species page on Ant Web.
This list should be cited as:
Wild A - Ectatomminae Ant Web List of the Ants of Paraguay, taken from www.faunaparaguay.com.
*Ectatomma brunneum F.Smith 1858 AntWebsp
*Ectatomma edentatum Roger 1863 AntWebsp
Ectatomma opaciventre Roger 1863 AntWebsp
Ectatomma permagnum Forel 1908 AntWebsp
Ectatomma planidens Borgmeier 1939 AntWebsp
*Ectatomma tuberculatum (Olivier 1792) AntWebsp
Gnamptogenys bruchi (Santschi 1922) AntWebsp
Gnamptogenys caelata Kempf 1967 no images AntWebsp
Gnamptogenys continua (Mayr 1887) AntWebsp
Gnamptogenys moelleri (Forel 1912) AntWebsp
*Gnamptogenys rastrata (Mayr 1866) AntWebsp
Gnamptogenys regularis Mayr 1870 AntWebsp
Gnamptogenys striatula Mayr 1884 AntWebsp
Gnamptogenys sulcata (F.Smith 1858) AntWebsp
Typhlomyrmex clavicornis Emery 1906 AntWebsp
Typhlomyrmex pusillus Emery 1894 AntWebsp
Typhlomyrmex rogenhoferi Mayr 1862 AntWebsp
For people interested in Formicidae the following electronic resources are highly recommended.
Ant Web Everything you need to know about ants of the world.
Myrmecos.net High quality photography of the world´s ants.
Many thanks to Ant Web and Alex Wild of www.myrmecos.net for their permission to reproduce the information included in the ant sections of the FAUNA Paraguay page.
Designed by Paul Smith 2006. This website is copyrighted by law. Material contained herewith may not be used without the prior written permission of FAUNA Paraguay. Photographs on this web-site were taken by Paul Smith, Hemme Batjes, Regis Nossent,
Alberto Esquivel, Arne Lesterhuis, Rebbeca Zarza, José Luis Cartes and Hugo del Castillo and are used with their permission.